Intloko kubasetyhini abakhulelweyo kunye nesini somntwana

mohamed elsharkawy
2024-02-17T19:57:41+00:00
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mohamed elsharkawyIsifundi sobungqina: adminNgoSeptemba 30, 2023Uhlaziyo lokugqibela: kwiveki eyi-XNUMX edlulileyo

Intloko kubasetyhini abakhulelweyo kunye nesini somntwana

Kukho inkolelo eqhelekileyo yokuba iintloko ngexesha lamanyathelo okuqala okukhulelwa zibhekwa njengobungqina besini somntwana. Amahemuhemu athi ukuba ibhinqa linentloko ebuhlungu phambi kwentloko yakhe, umntwana ongekazalwa uya kuba yinkwenkwe.

Noko ke, uhlolisiso lwakutshanje luye lwabonisa ukuba ezi nkolelo azichananga. Ubudlelwane phakathi kweentloko ezibuhlungu zokukhulelwa kunye nesini somntwana abukhange buqinisekiswe ngokwesayensi. Ayichaphazeli kakubi umntwana osanda kuzalwa, ngaphandle kokuba iimpawu ezinzulu zibonakala kumzimba kamama.

Ukubonakala kwentloko yokukhulelwa ngenxa yeenguqu ze-hormonal ezenzeka emzimbeni wowesifazane ngexesha lokukhulelwa. Abanye abantu banokukholelwa ukuba iintloko ezibuhlungu zokukhulelwa zityhila isini somntwana, kodwa abukho ubungqina besayensi bokuxhasa eli bango.

Kukho amahemuhemu ajikelezayo okuba intloko ebuhlungu kakhulu ibonisa ukukhulelwa kwenkwenkwe. Abanye abantu basenokucinga ukuba umfazi okhulelweyo oyinkwenkwe uphathwa yintloko ebuhlungu ngokuqhelekileyo ngexesha lokukhulelwa. Kodwa ezi ngcamango azinasiseko.

Intetho eqhelekileyoInyaniso yenzululwazi
Iintloko ezibuhlungu zokukhulelwa zibubungqina bokuba ukhulelwe inkwenkwe.Abukho ubungqina benzululwazi obuxhasa le ngxelo.
Umntu okhulelweyo oyinkwenkwe uphathwa yintloko kakhulu.Abukho ubungqina benzululwazi obuxhasa le ngxelo.
Intloko yokukhulelwa ayichaphazeli kakubi umntwana osanda kuzalwa.Kuyinyaniso, ngaphandle kokuba ezinye iimpawu ezinzulu zibonakala.
Ukukhulelwa kwentloko kubangelwa utshintsho lwamahomoni kumzimba wowesifazane.Kuyinyaniso, kodwa akusiyo isalathisi esicacileyo sesini somntwana.

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Ziziphi iintlobo zeentloko zabasetyhini abakhulelweyo?

  1. I-Migraine: Olu luhlobo oluqhelekileyo lwentloko eyenzeka rhoqo kwicala elinye lentloko. Intlungu inokuba phakathi okanye ibe nzima kakhulu. Abantu abaninzi abakhulelweyo baphathwa yi-migraines ngexesha lokukhulelwa.
  2. Intloko yoxinzelelo: Olu lolunye uhlobo oluqhelekileyo lwentloko ekhapha abasetyhini abakhulelweyo. Iintloko ezibuhlungu zidla ngokubangelwa kukuxinana kwemisipha kunye noxinzelelo lwengqondo. Intlungu inokuba phakathi ukuya rhoqo kwiintloko ezibuhlungu.
  3. Intloko yeCluster: Luhlobo olunqabileyo lwentloko enokuthi yenzeke ngexesha lokukhulelwa. Iintloko zeCluster zibonakaliswa ziintlungu ezibukhali, eziqatha kwindawo enye yentloko, ezinokuhlala ixesha elide kwaye zikhatshwe ziimpumlo ezixineneyo kunye neengxaki zamehlo.

Nangona ezi ntlobo zingasentla ziintlobo eziqhelekileyo zeentloko, unobangela othile wentloko yowesifazane okhulelweyo kufuneka umiselwe. Intloko ebuhlungu ngamanye amaxesha inokuba luphawu lwenye ingxaki yempilo, njengokuphazamiseka kwemithambo yegazi okanye i-preeclampsia.

Ukunyanga iintloko kubasetyhini abakhulelweyo, abafazi abakhulelweyo banokuthatha iintlungu ezikhuselekileyo ezifana ne-acetaminophen (iTylenol) kunye namanye amayeza acetyiswa ngumboneleli wezempilo ngokuxhomekeke kwimeko.

Kuyafaneleka ukuba uqaphele ukuba ugqirha kufuneka adibane ngaphambi kokuthatha nawaphi na amayeza, ngakumbi kubasetyhini abakhulelweyo. Ugqirha wakho unokuncoma amanye amanyathelo okuthintela ukunciphisa ubunzima beentloko kunye nokunciphisa iimpawu eziphazamisayo.

Intloko yokukhulelwa iqala nini kwaye iphela nini?

Ixesha lokukhulelwa lingqina utshintsho oluninzi kunye nokuguqulwa okwenzeka kumzimba wesetyhini, kubandakanywa nesiganeko sokukhulelwa kwentloko. Abasetyhini abaninzi abalindele umntwana bahlushwa yile ntloko eqhelekileyo, ngakumbi kwiinyanga zokuqala zokukhulelwa kunye ne-trimester yesithathu. Ukuhlaselwa kokuqala kweentloko zokukhulelwa kunokunyuka kwinyanga yesibini yokukhulelwa.

Iintloko zentloko yinto engokwemvelo enokuthi icaphukise abafazi abakhulelweyo. Intloko kufuneka iqale kwi-trimester yokuqala kwaye ngokuthe ngcembe iphele kwiinyanga ezilandelayo. Nangona kunjalo, abafazi abakhulelweyo kufuneka banikele ingqalelo kwezinye iimpawu ezinokuhamba kunye neentloko, ezifana ne-migraines enzima, ethathwa njengeyona nto ixhaphakileyo phakathi kwabasetyhini abakhulelweyo, ngakumbi kwiinyanga zokuqala zokukhulelwa. Intloko inokubuya kwakhona kwinyanga yesine, yesihlanu, neyesithandathu ngenxa yoxinzelelo kunye nokwanda kobukhulu besibeleko, okubeka uxinzelelo kwimithambo-luvo kunye nemithambo yegazi kwaye kubangele ukuziva udiniwe.

Ixesha lokwenzeka kwentloko yokukhulelwa ligqitywa yinkqubo yokufakelwa kweqanda elichumayo eludongeni lwesibeleko, elihamba kunye nokukhululwa kwamahomoni okukhulelwa Ngokuqhelekileyo, intloko iqala ukususela ngomhla wokufakelwa kweqanda kwaye iyaqhubeka de kube inyanga yesine okanye yesihlanu yokukhulelwa, xa iqala ukuhla. Ukupheliswa kweentloko okanye ukuhla kwamandla abo kwinyanga yesibini neyesithathu yokukhulelwa kubonisa ukuphuculwa kwimeko yabo jikelele.

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Yintoni ebonisa intloko kubasetyhini abakhulelweyo?

Intloko enye yeengxaki eziqhelekileyo ezijongene nabasetyhini ngexesha lokukhulelwa. Abasetyhini abaninzi baphathwa yintloko ngenxa yotshintsho lwehomoni eyenzeka emizimbeni yabo ngeli xesha. Ngokuqhelekileyo, iintloko zinyuka kwiinyanga zokuqala zokukhulelwa ngenxa yokwanda kwehomoni yokukhulelwa, echaphazela imithwalo yegazi kwingqondo.

Ukujongana neentloko ngexesha lokukhulelwa, kukho iindlela ezahlukeneyo ezinokulandelwa. Abasetyhini abakhulelweyo bayakwazi ukulawula okanye ukunyanga iintloko ezibuhlungu besebenzisa amayeza afana neepilisi zentlungu ezifana neparacetamol. Nangona kunjalo, abafazi abakhulelweyo kufuneka baqiniseke ukuba badibane nodokotela ngaphambi kokuba bathathe nawaphi na amayeza ukuqinisekisa ukhuseleko lwayo ngexesha lokukhulelwa.

Ukongeza kunyango lweziyobisi, abafazi abakhulelweyo banokunyamekela impilo enempilo ukuze banciphise iintloko. Amacebiso abalulekileyo kukuqinisekisa ukuba ulala ngokwaneleyo kwaye uphephe uxinzelelo olugqithisileyo. Unako kwakhona ukugcina ibhalansi elungileyo yeswekile yegazi ngokutya ukutya okunempilo, okunokulinganisela. Imfuneko yokwenza umsebenzi womzimba rhoqo kwaye ngokuhambelana nesikhokelo sonyango akufanele ihoywe.

Abasetyhini abakhulelweyo akufanele bathathe intloko ngokukhawuleza okanye bangayihoyi, njengoko iintloko zinokuba bubungqina bezinye izinto ezinokuchaphazela impilo yomama kunye nomntwana. Ezinye izinto ezibangela intloko ebuhlungu zinokuquka ukungabikho kokulala, uxinzelelo lwegazi oluphezulu, kunye ne-anemia. Kubalulekile ukubeka iliso kunye nokulandelela naluphi na utshintsho kwisimo sempilo kwaye udibane nodokotela ukuba iintloko ziqhubeka zikhathaza.

Ngaba iintloko ezingapheliyo ziyingozi kubasetyhini abakhulelweyo?

Amabhinqa amaninzi aphathwa yintloko ngexesha lokukhulelwa, yaye nangona iintloko ezibuhlungu ezinjengokuqaqanjelwa, ukuqaqanjelwa yintloko kwentliziyo, nentloko eqaqadekileyo zixhaphakile, zisenokuba luphawu lwesinye isifo esisenokuba sibi ngakumbi.

IiHormones zichaphazeleka ngexesha lokukhulelwa, okwenza abafazi basengozini yokuphazamiseka kwehomoni kwaye ngaloo ndlela babe yintloko. Iintloko zinyuka kwiinyanga zokuqala zokukhulelwa ngenxa yokutshintsha ngokukhawuleza kwamahomoni. Kodwa iintloko zidla ngokuphucuka okanye zinyamalale ngokupheleleyo kwiinyanga ezintandathu zokuqala.

Ukuphindaphinda kweentloko kwandisa kwiiveki zesithoba zokukhulelwa, ngenxa yokunyuka kwevolumu yegazi kunye namahomoni kumzimba wesifazane okhulelweyo. Nangona kunjalo, iintloko ziyakwazi ukuqala nangaliphi na ixesha ngexesha lokukhulelwa kwaye zingaqhubeka ngexesha lokukhulelwa.

Ukongezelela, intloko ngexesha lokukhulelwa ingaba ngumqondiso wezinye iingxaki zempilo ezifana noxinzelelo lwegazi oluphezulu, isifo se-vascular, kunye ne-preeclampsia. Ngoko ke, ukuba ibhinqa elikhulelweyo lijongene neentloko eziqhubekayo kunye neziphindaphindiweyo ezingapheliyo, kunokufuneka ukuba udibane nodokotela ukuze kuqinisekiswe ukuba akukho mpilo inzima.

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Ngaba iintloko ziluphawu loxinzelelo lwegazi oluphantsi kwabasetyhini abakhulelweyo?

Uxinzelelo lwegazi luhlala luphantsi ngexesha lokukhulelwa xa kuthelekiswa nemilinganiselo eqhelekileyo ngaphandle kokukhulelwa. Ngokomzekelo, uxinzelelo lwegazi oluqhelekileyo kwinqanaba lokuqala lokukhulelwa li malunga ne-120/80, ngelixa limalunga ne-110/70 ngexesha lokukhulelwa.

Uxinzelelo lwegazi olusezantsi ngaphantsi kwezi xabiso lunokubangela intloko ebuhlungu ngasemva kwentloko, efikelela entanyeni kwaye ihamba kunye nokuziva ukubetha kunye nokuba ndindisholo kwezi ndawo.

Iimpawu zomothuko ziquka ukubhideka, ingakumbi kubantu abadala, ulusu olubandayo kunye nokubila, kunye nokutshintsha kwebala lomlomo. Iintloko zokukhulelwa zibhekwa njengenye yeengxaki eziqhelekileyo kwi-trimester yokuqala neyesithathu yokukhulelwa, kwaye ingabonisa imeko ye-preeclampsia. Ngoko ke, ingqwalasela esondeleyo kufuneka ihlawulwe ukuba ezi zimpawu zivela.

Ngokuqhelekileyo, amayeza okunyanga uxinzelelo lwegazi oluphantsi ngexesha lokukhulelwa akaqhelekanga ukucetyiswa ngaphandle kokuba iimpawu zinzima okanye kukho iingozi ezinxulumene nokukhulelwa. Kwiiveki zokuqala zokukhulelwa, kuqhelekile ukuba uxinzelelo lwegazi lwehle, kwaye lunokongezwa ngokutya izixa ezaneleyo zetyuwa kunye nolwelo.

Ngaba ukunqongophala kwentsimbi kubangela intloko ebuhlungu kunye nesicaphucaphu kwabasetyhini abakhulelweyo?

Uphononongo lubonise ukuba ukungabikho kwentsimbi ngexesha lokukhulelwa kunokukhokelela kwezinye iimpawu ezingathandekiyo, ezifana nentloko kunye nesicaphucaphu. Ukunqongophala kwe-iron kwenzeka xa kukho umgangatho ophantsi we-iron egazini, ochaphazela amandla omzimba okwenza iiseli ezibomvu zegazi ezinoxanduva lokuhambisa ioksijini kumalungu kunye nezicubu.

Xa bekhulelwe, abafazi bafuna izixa ezongezelelweyo ze-iron ukuxhasa ukukhula kombungu kunye nophuhliso lokukhulelwa. Ukuba iimfuno zentsimbi azifezekiswanga, ukunqongophala kwentsimbi kunye ne-anemia kungenzeka.

Enye yeempawu zokunqongophala kwe-iron anemia yintloko. Abasetyhini abakhulelweyo abane-anemia bahlala bephathwa yintloko kwindawo engaphambili yentloko. Ukongeza, abafazi banokuziva benesicaphucaphu kunye nokuhlanza.

Ukuba ufumana intloko ebuhlungu kunye ne-nausea ngexesha lokukhulelwa, kunokuba luncedo ukuthetha nodokotela wakho ukuba ahlole isinyithi kwaye uqinisekise ukuba unokwaneleyo. Ugqirha unokumisela izongezo ze-iron ukubuyisela nakuphi na ukunqongophala kwentsimbi.

Luluphi unyango lweentloko zabasetyhini abakhulelweyo ekhaya?

Intloko yingxaki eqhelekileyo abantu abaninzi abahluphekayo kuyo, kwaye le ngxaki iyanda ngexesha lokukhulelwa. Nangona kukho iintlobo ezininzi zeentloko, i-migraines yenye yezona zibalaseleyo kwaye zinempembelelo enkulu kubasetyhini abakhulelweyo.

Abasetyhini abaninzi abakhulelweyo baphathwa yintloko ebuhlungu ngenxa yokutshintsha kwehomoni, uxinzelelo lwengqondo, ukuxinezeleka kwentamo nasemagxeni, ukungondleki, kunye nokunqongophala kwamanzi. Ngoko ke, abafazi abakhulelweyo banokulandela ezinye iinkqubo ezilula ekhaya ukuze banciphise iintloko kunye nokunciphisa intlungu.

Phakathi kweendlela eziphambili zasekhaya zokunyanga iintloko kubasetyhini abakhulelweyo:

  1. Thatha i-zip xa usiva intloko ebuhlungu.
  2. Yitya ukutya okuqulethe i-magnesium, njengembewu kunye namandongomane.
  3. Faka isicelo se-compress ebandayo okanye efudumeleyo kwindawo yebunzi imizuzu eyi-10.
  4. Relax kwigumbi elimnyama kwaye uziqhelanise nokuphefumla nzulu.
  5. Thatha ibhafu efudumeleyo kwaye ujabulele ukuphumla okuninzi kunye nokuphumla.
  6. Sela iziselo ezininzi ukukhusela ukuphelelwa ngamanzi emzimbeni.
  7. Thatha i-acetaminophen (iTylenol) ngokukhuselekileyo, njengoko uyalelwe ngugqirha wakho.
  8. Fumana isiqingatha seyure esongezelelweyo sokulala ukuze uthomalalise iimpawu zentloko.

Nangona unyango lwasekhaya lunokusebenza ekupheliseni iintloko kubasetyhini abakhulelweyo, kuyimfuneko ukudibana nodokotela ngaphambi kokuba uthathe nawaphi na amayeza okanye unyango. Abasetyhini abakhulelweyo kufuneka baqaphele ukuba kukho amayeza athile afanele agwenywe ukuphepha imiphumo emibi kwi-fetus.

Kukuphi ukutya okungavumelekanga kubafazi abakhulelweyo?

  1. Inyama engaphekwanga: Kucetyiswa ukuba ungayityi inyama ekrwada okanye engaphekwanga ngokwaneleyo, njengoko isenokuba nebhaktheriya ye-Listeria, enokuchaphazela i-fetus nge-placenta, ebangela ukuphuphuma kwesisu okanye ukuzala.
  2. Intlanzi: Kufuneka ukuphephe ukutya intlanzi eluhlaza, njengentlanzi engaphekwanga kunye ne-shellfish, njengoko inokuba neebhaktheriya, iintsholongwane, okanye iiparasite ezibangela iingxaki zempilo kumntwana. Kufuneka kwakhona ugweme ukutya ukutya kwaselwandle okune-mercury, njengoko kunokubangela ukulibaziseka kokuphuhliswa kwengqondo kunye nomonakalo.
  3. Iimveliso zobisi ezingaxutywanga: Kucetyiswa ukuba ungatyi iimveliso zobisi ezingaxutywanga ezifana netshizi kunye neyogathi, kunye namaqanda akrwada, njengoko zinokuqulatha iibhaktheriya ezibangela ityhefu yokutya.
  4. Inyama kunye nentlanzi engaphekwanga ngokwaneleyo: Kufuneka ukuphephe ukutya inyama kunye nentlanzi engaphekwanga ngokwaneleyo, njenge-steaks ephakathi okanye ephakathi-enqabileyo, i-sushi, kunye ne-sashimi, njengoko zinokuqulatha iintsholongwane ezinokuchaphazela impilo yomntwana.

Ngaba iintloko kwinyanga yesithathu isibonakaliso sokukhulelwa kunye nenkwenkwe?

Iimpawu zokukhulelwa ziyahluka phakathi kwabasetyhini kwaye ziyahluka ukusuka kwelinye icala ukuya kwelinye. Olunye lweempawu ezinokufunyanwa ngabasetyhini ngexesha lokukhulelwa ziintloko ezibuhlungu.

Abasetyhini bafumana iintloko eziqhelekileyo ngexesha lokukhulelwa, ngakumbi kwiinyanga zokuqala. Nangona kunjalo, akukho budlelwane obuthe ngqo phakathi kweentloko kunye nesini somntwana.

Abanye banokukholelwa ukuba intloko ebuhlungu phambi kwentloko ibonisa ukukhulelwa kwendoda, ngelixa intloko ebuhlungu ibonisa ukukhulelwa kwabasetyhini, kodwa eli bango alixhaswanga ngokwesayensi kwaye alinaso isiseko esiqinileyo sobungqina.

Ukwanda kweziganeko zentloko ngexesha lokukhulelwa kuhambelana nezinga eliphezulu le-estrogen. Ezinye iingcali zikholelwa ukuba olu lwando lubangela ukucaphuka kwemithambo yegazi esengqondweni yaye ngaloo ndlela kubangela intloko ebuhlungu.

Ukuphelisa iintloko ezibuhlungu ngexesha lokukhulelwa, ezinye iindlela zokuthintela zinokulandelwa, njengokulala ngecala nokuhlala kude nezinto ezinokubangela intloko ebuhlungu, njengokuxinezeleka, uxinzelelo, ukukhanya okuqaqambileyo, nezandi ezivakalayo. Kukwacetyiswa ukuba usele amanzi aneleyo kwaye uphumle ngokwaneleyo kwaye ulale.

Zeziphi iimpawu zokuqala zokukhulelwa?

  1. Ukulibaziseka kokuya exesheni: Ukulibazisa ukuya exesheni lolunye lweempawu ezibalaseleyo zokukhulelwa kwangethuba. Ukungaphumeleli ukuya exesheni ngomhla olindelekileyo kudla ngokuba luphawu lokukhulelwa okunokwenzeka.
  2. Ukunyuka kobushushu bomzimba we-basal: Ukongeza kokulibaziseka kokuya esikhathini, ukunyuka kweqondo lokushisa kwe-basal kunokubonisa ukukhulelwa okunokwenzeka. Abasetyhini banokulinganisa ubushushu bomzimba wabo ngethemometha yephazili.
  3. Iintlungu xa ubamba okanye uqaqanjelwa libele: Abanye abafazi banokuva iintlungu ezingephi okanye ukuthamba kwamabele ngexesha lokuqala lokukhulelwa.
  4. Ukopha kwilungu lobufazi: Ukopha kancinci kwilungu lobufazi okanye “ukubona” luphawu oluqhelekileyo lokukhulelwa kwangoko. Ukopha okukhanyayo kunokwenzeka kwilungu lobufazi ngenxa yokungena kwegazi elivela kwisibeleko, kwaye oku kuthathwa njengophawu lokukhulelwa.
  5. Ukukhathala kunye nokukhathala: Ukudinwa kunye nokudinwa ziimpawu zokuqala zokukhulelwa. Ibhinqa lisenokuziva lidiniwe yaye lidiniwe nasemva kokwenza umgudu omncinane. Oku kunokwenzeka ngenxa yokutshintsha kwehomoni kunye nemetabolism ephezulu emzimbeni wakhe.
  6. Utshintsho kwiminqweno yokutya: Abasetyhini abalindelekileyo banokufumana iminqweno yokutya eyahlukileyo ngokwabo okanye banokuziva benqwenela iintlobo ezithile zokutya.
  7. Ukonyuka kobukhulu kunye novakalelo lwamabele: Abasetyhini banokuva ukuba amabele abo esanda ngobukhulu kwaye abe nobuntununtunu ngakumbi ngexesha lokukhulelwa kwangoko.
Iimpawu zokukhulelwa kwangoko kakhuluingcaciso
Ukulibazisa ukuya exesheniIxesha aliveli ngomhla olindelekileyo
Ukonyuka kobushushu bomzimba obungundoqoUkwanda kobushushu bomzimba obungundoqo
Iintlungu xa ubamba okanye ubuhlungu bebeleUkuziva iintlungu ezincinci okanye ubuntununtunu kumabele
ukopha kwilungu lobufaziUkopha kancinci kwilungu lobufazi
Ukudinwa kunye nokudinwaUkuziva udiniwe kwaye udinwe kakhulu
Utshintsho kwiminqweno yokutyaUtshintsho kwiminqweno yokutya
Ukwandiswa kobukhulu kunye novakalelo lwamabeleUkwandiswa kobukhulu besifuba kunye nokwanda kovakalelo kubo

Ngaba umnqweno wokulala uphawu lokukhulelwa?

Ukungaziva ukozela yinto abafazi abaninzi abafana ngayo ngexesha lokukhulelwa. Ukulala kakhulu luphawu lokukhulelwa kwangethuba olufunyanwa ngabasetyhini abaninzi. Amanqanaba aphezulu eprogesterone - ihomoni yokukhulelwa - inokubangela ukuvakalelwa rhoqo kunye nokudinwa. Izinga eliphezulu leprogesterone yimbangela enkulu yokulala ngokugqithiseleyo kwabasetyhini abakhulelweyo.

Kwiiveki zokuqala zokukhulelwa, abafazi banokuba nobunzima bokuvuka, kwaye bahlala beziva bediniwe kwaye bediniwe. Ngeli xesha, inani leeyure umzimba kufuneka ulale ukwanda, ngenxa yokutshintsha kwehomoni emzimbeni. Abanye basenokozela ngakumbi kunye nezinye iimpawu ezifana nesicaphucaphu, ukuhlanza, nokuthamba kwamabele.

Ukongeza, abanye abantu basetyhini banokufumana uvakalelo lwevumba kunye nokuphazamiseka kokutya, okanye bazive beneminqweno enzulu yokutya. Le yinxalenye yokutshintsha komzimba okwenzeka ngexesha lokukhulelwa.

Noko ke, abo baza kuba ngoomama basenokuzibuza enoba ukulala kakhulu kukanina kuyayichaphazela imveku engekazalwa. Ngokutsho kweengcali, abukho ubungqina besayensi obubonisa ukuba ukulala kakhulu komama kuchaphazela kakubi umntwana. Nangona kunjalo, oomama abaneempawu ezingapheliyo okanye ukuxhalaba ngokugqithiseleyo kufuneka baye kugqirha wabo ukuze bafune iingcebiso kwaye baqinisekise imeko yabo yempilo kunye nempilo yomntwana.

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