Ukucinga kwefilosofi kwaye yintoni umphumo wokucinga kwefilosofi engqondweni?

mohamed elsharkawy
Iinkcukacha zajikelele
mohamed elsharkawyIsifundi sobungqina: nancyNgoSeptemba 18, 2023Uhlaziyo lokugqibela: kwiinyanga ezi-9 ezidlulileyo

Ukucinga ngefilosofi

Ingcinga yefilosofi yindlela yokucinga ejolise ekuhlolisiseni nasekuhlalutyeni iingxaki zobomi bomntu kunye nokubonelela ngeempendulo kunye neengcaciso kubo. Ingcinga yefilosofi ifunda iikhonsepthi ngokubanzi kunye nezihloko ezingavakaliyo ngendlela enengqondo kwaye ngokwahlukileyo kwizinto eziphathekayo, izinto eziphathekayo. Indlela yokucinga yentanda-bulumko ifuna ukuzimela geqe ngobukrelekrele bomntu namandla okucinga ngendlela acinga ngayo, khon’ ukuze akwazi ukufumana iimbono neengcamango zakhe ngaphandle kokuphenjelelwa ziimbono zabanye.

Ingcinga yefilosofi ibonakala ngokukhwankqiswa nokuphakamisa imibuzo, njengoko umsebenzi wengqondo yomntu umvuselela kwaye umtyhale ukuba abuze malunga nezizathu zokumangala kwakhe kunye nokumangaliswa kwizinto ezininzi. Olu hlobo lokucinga lugqalwa njengoluhlobo lomntu ngamnye aluphuhlisayo kwaye alusekelwanga kwiimbono okanye kwimvumelwano yabanye.

Ingcinga yefilosofi yenye yeenzululwazi ezibalulekileyo ezijongene nokufunda ukuziphatha komntu kunye nophuhliso loluntu. Olu hlobo lokucinga lunegalelo ekuphuhliseni ithiyori yethu yobuqu kunye nokusekwa kwenkqubo yeenkolelo kunye nezigqibo zomntu ngamnye. Ukongeza, ukucinga ngefilosofi kusivumela ukuba sicinge ngokugqibeleleyo nangokunzulu malunga nemiba eyahlukeneyo kunye neengqikelelo kwaye sifumane izisombululo ezintsha kunye neendlela zokujongana nemingeni esijongene nayo. Ngokubanzi, ukucinga kwefilosofi kunegalelo ekuphuhlisweni komntu kunye nokuphuculwa kobomi bomntu kunye noluntu.

Iimpawu zokucinga zefilosofi - ivenkile

Iyintoni ingcamango yokucinga kwentanda-bulumko?

Ifilosofi yenye yeenzululwazi ezijongene nophando olunengqiqo ngenjongo yolwazi, kwaye ukucinga kwefilosofi kukucinga ngokusekelwe kwiseti yemigaqo eyahlukeneyo, iziseko, kunye neempawu ezahlukeneyo zefilosofi. Ingcinga yentanda-bulumko yahlulwe kwingcinga yeenkolelo kuba ixhomekeke kwiziseko ezivakalayo nezingqiniweyo zenzululwazi kwaye isekelwe kwimigaqo esengqiqweni enengqiqo.

Ukucinga kwefilosofi kusekelwe kuzo zonke iifom zengqondo kunye neenkqubo ezenziwa yingqondo yomntu, eyenza ukuba imodeli kwaye iqonde ihlabathi. Ukucinga kwefilosofi kusebenza ukuphonononga iikhonsepthi eziqhelekileyo kunye nezingabonakaliyo kunye nokuhlalutya iingcamango eziyinkimbinkimbi kunye nemiba.

Ukubaluleka kokucinga kwefilosofi kusekukwazini ukwandisa i-horizons yokuqonda kunye nokucinga komntu ngamnye, njengoko kubenza bakwazi ukubona ihlabathi ngokwembono eyahlukileyo kwaye bahlalutye iziganeko kunye neziganeko ngendlela enengqondo. Ukucinga kwefilosofi kunceda abantu ukuba baphonononge iinyani ezahlukeneyo kunye nemibuzo ebalulekileyo ebomini kunye nobukho bomntu.

Ziziphi iimpawu zokucinga kwefilosofi?

Iimpawu zokucinga zefilosofi zibonakaliswa ngamacandelo amaninzi. Okokuqala, ukucinga kwefilosofi kufuna ukubuza ubume bexesha kunye nokungamkeleki okunzulu kweengcamango ezinikezelweyo ngaphandle kokuqinisekisa ukunyaniseka kwazo. Ifilosofi ifuna ukufikelela kwinyaniso kunye nokuqonda ukulandelelana kwezinto ngokubanzi. Okwesibini, ukucinga kwefilosofi kubonakala kukukhangela intsingiselo kunye nokuqonda okunzulu. Iintanda-bulumko zixhalabele ingcamango yobomi, ubukho, imilinganiselo, imilinganiselo yokuziphatha, neminye imixholo entsonkothileyo eyenza isiseko sezibakala namava omntu. Ukumangaliswa kunye nemibuzo zikwayimpawu ezibalulekileyo zokucinga kwefilosofi, njengoko iintanda-bulumko zithandabuza izizathu zobukho bezinto, iintsingiselo zazo, kunye nemvelaphi yazo.
Okokugqibela, ukucinga ngefilosofi kuphelele kwaye ngokubanzi, njengoko kufundwa iingcamango ngokubanzi kunye neengcamango kunye neekhonsepthi kunokuba zibambe, izinto eziphathekayo. Iifilosofi zijonge ukuhlalutya kunye nokuqonda iimodeli eziqhelekileyo zezinto kunye neengcamango kunye nokuxoxa ngemiba ye-cosmological kunye ne-metaphysical. Ukucinga okubalulekileyo yinxalenye ebalulekileyo yokucinga kwefilosofi, njengoko ijikeleza ukucinga ngeendlela ezingaqhelekanga kunye nokuhlalutya nzulu izihloko ezivela kumbono ohlukileyo.

Ingqondo yentanda-bulumko ixhomekeke entwenini?

Ukucinga kwefilosofi kuxhomekeke kwizinto ezininzi ezibalulekileyo kunye nemigaqo. Okokuqala, kusekelwe kwiingxoxo ezinengqiqo zemigaqo kunye neengcamango, apho umntu azakhela inkqubo yakhe kwaye enze imodeli yokutolika iingcamango zakhe. Ukongeza, ukucinga kwefilosofi kufuna ukubuza rhoqo kunye nokuxhomekeka kwingqiqo.

Okwesibini, ukucinga kwefilosofi kuxhomekeke ekuqwalaselweni okuqhubekayo kunye nokucinga ngezinto ezahlukeneyo. Ifilosofi ikhuthaza ukuphononongwa okubanzi kwehlabathi kunye nohlalutyo olunzulu, kwaye ityhala umntu ukuba acinge kwaye abuze imiba yokwenyani kunye neenyani ezaziwayo.

Okwesithathu, ukucinga kwentanda-bulumko kuxhomekeke ekukhwankqisweni nasekubuzeni imibuzo. Xa umntu eziva ekhwankqisiwe okanye eyithanda into ethile, kuye kuvele imeko yokucinga ngokwentanda-bulumko, apho azibuze ngezizathu zokubakho kwaloo nto nendlela ekhoyo ngayo.

Ngaphezu koko, ukucinga kwefilosofi kubonakala ngokufunda ngokubanzi, iikhonsepthi ezingabonakaliyo kwaye zingabonakali, izinto eziphathekayo. Ijolise ekuphuhliseni ukuqonda okubanzi kunye nokuhlalutya izimvo kunye nezihloko ngendlela ecwangcisiweyo necwangcisiweyo.

Ngokubanzi, ifilosofi yinzululwazi esekwe kufundo lokuziphatha komntu kunye neenkcukacha zayo ezininzi, kwaye ixhalabele ukuphuhlisa uluntu kunye nokufunda ifuthe lemibono kunye neenqobo ezisemgangathweni ekuphumezeni inkqubela kunye nokuchuma. Ukucinga kwefilosofi kuxhomekeke kakhulu kwingqiqo, ukucinga nzulu, kunye nokuvakalisa iingcamango kunye nemibandela ngendlela ehlalutyayo kunye nenzulu.

Indlela yefilosofi kunye nokucinga kwengqondo

Nguwuphi umahluko phakathi kwengcinga yentanda-bulumko kunye nokucinga kwasentsomini?

Umahluko phakathi kokucinga kwentanda-bulumko kunye nokucinga kwasentsomini kusekelwe kwisiseko ngasinye kuzo. Ukucinga kwefilosofi kuxhomekeke ikakhulu kwingqiqo kunye nokucinga okuphangaleleyo, njengoko ifuna ukufunda iikhonsepthi kunye neengcinga nzulu kwaye ifumane iinyani ezisekelwe kuhlalutyo kunye nokuqiqa okunengqiqo. Ingcinga yasentsomini ibonakaliswa ngokuthembela kwiintsomi kunye namabali, apho intelekelelo ixeliswa kwaye kubaliswa amabali angeyonyani.

I-Mythos ligama elibhekiselele kwizinto zentsomi ekucingeni, njengoko kubandakanya ukuthembela ekungabi nangqiqo kunye neemvakalelo ekuchazeni iziganeko kunye neziganeko. Ngelixa iilogo ligama elibonisa isizathu kunye nengqiqo kwingcinga yefilosofi.

Izilumko eziSixhenxe liqela leentanda-bulumko zamandulo zamadoda namabhinqa ezazidume ngobulumko neengcinga ezinzulu. Imvelaphi yeli qela ibuyela kumaGrike amandulo kwaye iquka uPlato, uAristotle, uSocrates, uPythagoras, uEmpedocles, uThales noCleophus waseAlexandria.

Indlela yokucinga yasentsomini yahlukile kwiingcamango eziziinkolelo kuba ukucinga kwasentsomini kusekelwe kwiintsomi namabali ukuchaza iziganeko neziganeko, ngoxa ukucinga kweenkolelo kusekelwe kwiintsomi zasekuhlaleni okanye izithethe zonqulo neenkolelo zesithethe. Ukongeza, ukucinga okusentsomini kugqalwa njengenxalenye yembali yenkcubeko nempucuko, ngelixa ukucinga ngeenkolelo kugqalwa njengesiqhelo kwaye kusekelwe kwizithethe nakwizithethe zabantu.

Yaqala njani ingcamango yentanda-bulumko?

Ingcinga yentanda-bulumko yaqala mandulo emva kokuba iingcaphephe zamandulo zamaGrike zabeka iziseko zokuqala zentanda-bulumko yaseNtshona. Ifilosofi yayithathwa njengomzuzu wokuqala ekuphuhlisweni kwengcinga yefilosofi kwaye yaqhubeka ukusuka kwinkulungwane yesithandathu BC eGrisi. Intanda-bulumko yamaGrike yatyhubela amanqanaba aliqela, inqanaba ngalinye lahlulwa kwelinye ngeempawu ezikhethekileyo nezahlukeneyo.

Ingcinga yentanda-bulumko kumaxesha amandulo yayisekelwe kwiingcinga zasentsomini nakwiintsomi. Ubukhulu becala ulwazi lwabantu lwalusekelwe ekubenilisa amabali entelekelelo ngendalo iphela, indalo neenkolelo zabantu. Olu hlobo lokucinga lwalugxininise kakhulu ekufumaneni intsingiselo yobukho bomntu nolwalamano lwakhe nehlabathi elimngqongileyo.

Omnye wawona manani abalulekileyo kwintanda-bulumko yamaGrike nguSocrates, isithandi sobulumko samandulo samaGrike esathi, “Kuyamangalisa sisiqalo sentanda-bulumko.” Phambi kokumangala, umntu unokuqalisa ukucinga nzulu aze ahlolisise imibuzo yobukho nenyaniso. Eneneni, uSocrates wayethetha ukuba ukucinga kwentanda-bulumko kuqala ngokukhwankqiswa, imibuzo, nokufuna ulwazi.

Ngale ndlela, iimpawu ezine eziphambili zokucinga kwefilosofi zichongiwe:

  1. Ummangaliso: Sisiqalo, apho umntu efunda ukukhwankqiswa yaye ekhwankqisiwe aze aqalise ukuphanda nokucinga nzulu.
  2. Ukuncinwa: Imibuzo nemibuzo iza emva kokukhwankqiswa, njengoko umntu ebuza ngemvelaphi yezinto neentsingiselo kunye nendawo yakhe kwindalo iphela.
  3. Uphando: Ifilosofi iyaqhubeka nokuphanda nokucinga ukuze ifikelele kulwazi kwaye iqonde inyaniso kunye nenyani.
  4. Ukuchaswa: Isithandi sobulumko sisenokufikelela kwiziphumo nezimvo ezisenokungamkeleki kwabanye, yaye sisenokugatya iinkolelo zesithethe size sivelise eyaso imbono.

Yayiyintoni ingcamango eyafika ngaphambi kweengcamango zentanda-bulumko?

Kumawaka eminyaka eyadlulayo kwiGrisi yamandulo, kwakukho ingcamango eyayikho kuluntu ngaphambi kokuvela kwefilosofi, eyaziwa ngokuba yingcamango yentsomi. Le ngcinga yayijongwa njengengqiqo kunye nengqiqo njengengcinga enkulu ngelo xesha.

Ngenkulungwane yesithandathu BC, intanda-bulumko yavela okokuqala ezandleni zikaThales, isithandi sobulumko esidumileyo samaGrike, emva koko kwavela ulandelelwano lweengqondi neentanda-bulumko zamaGrike. Ingcinga yasentsomini ibonakala ngokwamkela ngokupheleleyo ingcamango ethile nokugatya ngokupheleleyo ezinye iimbono.Oku kuchasene nokucinga kwentanda-bulumko, eyamkela ezinye iimbono ize ifune ukucinga nzulu.

Maninzi amalinge enziwe ngabaphandi baseNtshona naseMpuma ukuze baphinde batolike ukucinga kwamaGrike, babuyele kuyo, baze baqonde ngakumbi. Ukucinga kwefilosofi yinkqubo yolwazi kunye nokucinga okuphangaleleyo, apho ukucinga kuqala ngokuthandabuza, kwaye ukuthandabuza akwenzeki nje ngokukhanyela kunye nokuchaswa.

Ingcinga yentanda-bulumko yamaGrike yaqala ngokukhula kwezazi ezaziwayo zamaGrike (izilumko zendalo) ngaphambi kukaSocrates. UThales, owayecinga ukuba amanzi yimvelaphi yayo yonke into kunye nomgaqo ophambili wokubunjwa kobukho, waba nodumo.

Kutheni le nto ukucinga kwentanda-bulumko kugqalwa njengendlela esengqiqweni?

Ukucinga ngefilosofi yindlela enengqiqo ngenxa yezizathu ezininzi. Okokuqala kunye nokuphambili, ukucinga kwefilosofi kunamandla okukhangela ngokubanzi kunye nzulu kwimiba emininzi kunye neengcamango. Iintanda-bulumko zinomdla wokufunda ubukho, inyaniso, imilinganiselo, inzululwazi, uluntu, nabantu, nto leyo ebanceda bafumane umbono obanzi nonzulu wehlabathi elibangqongileyo.

Okwesibini, ukucinga kwentanda-bulumko kunceda ukuba umntu akwazi ukuhlalutya iingcamango, iinkolelo kunye neemeko ngocwangco nangengqiqo. Ngokusebenzisa ingqiqo nokuqiqa, izithandi zobulumko zinokuphonononga zize zigwebe iingcamango ngesakhono esinengqiqo.

Ngaphezu koko, ukucamngca ngefilosofi yindlela yokukhuthaza ukugxeka okwakhayo kunye nokuzihlaziya. Ikhuthaza umntu ukuba abuze kwaye abuze iinkolelo kunye nezimvo ezithatyathwe nzulu. Izithandi zobulumko zibuza imibuzo enzima nentsonkothileyo evuselela ukucinga nokwandisa ulwazi nokuqonda.

Okokugqibela, ukucinga ngefilosofi yindlela enengqiqo kuba ikhuthaza ukuthandabuza nokunganikezeli kwiinkolelo eziphindaphindiweyo ngaphandle kokuziqonda. Izithandi zobulumko zibuza kwaye zihlolisise iingcamango neenkolelo ezinikelwe phambi kwazo ngaphambi kokuba zifikelele kwizigqibo zazo zokugqibela. Amathandabuzo kunye nokuqinisekiswa kweengcamango kunye neenkolelo ziyintsika yenkqubo yokucinga yefilosofi.

Iimpawu zokucinga zefilosofi - isihloko

Uyintoni umphumo wokucinga kwefilosofi engqondweni?

Ifilosofi yenye yeenzululwazi ezisekelwe kwingcinga yengqondo kunye nokucamngca, kwaye inempembelelo enkulu ekukhuleni nasekuphuhliseni kwengqondo. Kunokuthiwa ukucinga kwefilosofi kwandisa amandla engqondo kwaye kube negalelo ekuphuhliseni ukucinga okunzulu. Xa umntu esenza ukucinga ngefilosofi, ufunda indlela yokuhlubula ingqondo yakhe yesithethe kunye nokuxhomekeka, kwaye aguqule abe yingcinga ezimeleyo ekwaziyo ukubeka iingcamango kunye neengcamango kwiimeko ezintsha nezingaqhelekanga.

Ukucinga kwefilosofi kwakhona kuvumela umntu ukuba abuze imibuzo kwaye abuze iingcamango kunye neenkolelo ezithathiweyo, evula umnyango ongapheliyo wamathuba amatsha kunye nokuqonda. Ngokucinga kwentanda-bulumko, ingqondo iqeqeshelwa ukuphonononga kunye nokuvavanya uqikelelo, iinkolelo kunye neengqikelelo, kunye nokwakha iziseko eziqinileyo zeenkolelo ezisekelwe kwingqiqo kunye nengqiqo.

Ngaphezu koko, ukucinga ngefilosofi kwandisa amandla ohlalutyo olunzulu kunye nokucinga okuchukumisayo. Umntu osebenzisa ukucinga kwefilosofi unokubonelela ngokunzulu kunye nokuqonda okunzulu kwimiba eyahlukeneyo kunye nemiba, kunye nokufumana amandla okuqonda ubudlelwane kunye nokuvisisana phakathi kweengcamango kunye neziganeko.

Ziziphi ezona mpawu zibalulekileyo zokucinga kwefilosofi?

Iimpawu ezibaluleke kakhulu zokucinga kwefilosofi kukukwazi ukubuza kunye nokuthandabuza, njengoko ifilosofi yakha ukucinga kwayo ngokusekelwe kwimibuzo kunye nokwakhiwa kweengcamango. Ukwadala ulungelelwaniso olunengqiqo phakathi kwezimvo zakhe ngokuqiqa, ukuzithethelela, ukugxeka, noviwo. Ukugxekwa kunokubaluleka okukhethekileyo kwinkalo yefilosofi, apho ukucinga kwefilosofi kwahluke ngokupheleleyo kwingcinga yasentsomini, nokuba ikwimo yayo okanye umxholo.

Enye yezona zinto zibalulekileyo ekucingeni kwefilosofi kukusungula izinto ezintsha kunye nobuchule bokubuza imibuzo ebhidayo. Imibuzo yefilosofi izama ukuphonononga iinkalo ezahlukeneyo zobukho, inyaniso, kunye nentsingiselo. Sifumanisa ukuba isithandi sobulumko esingumFrentshi uMichel Foucault sasibalaselisa le ndlela kwizifundo zakhe zamva nje ezinomxholo othi “Inkalipho Yenyaniso.” Ngolu tshintsho kunye nobuchule bokubuza imibuzo, ukucinga kwefilosofi kunokuba negalelo ekuqondeni nasekufumaneni izibakala.

Ukucinga kwefilosofi kubonakaliswe ngokubonelela ngokujonga ngokunzulu kwiingcamango kunye neengcamango ezaziwa kuluntu. Ifilosofi iqala ekugxekeni, okumnceda ukuba ahlolisise imiba emitsha neyohlukeneyo yenyaniso kunye nobukho. Ngokusebenzisa izigxeko, izimvo ziyahlalutywa, zivavanywe, kwaye ziphononongwe ukuze kufikelelwe ekuqondeni nzulu.

Yintoni injongo yefilosofi?

Indlela yefilosofi enenjongo yindlela esetyenziselwa ukufunda imigaqo kunye neengcamango ezimisela indlela ifilosofi eyenziwa ngayo kwaye ihlalutywe. Le ndlela igxile ekucingeni malunga nezinto kunye nokukhangela iinyani ezizingqongileyo, kunye nokufunda ubudlelwane phakathi kwazo. Indlela yefilosofi enenjongo yohlulwa kwezinye iindlela zophando oluqikelelwayo kuba ixhomekeke kuqwalaselo lwenzululwazi kunye nemifuniselo yokujongana nezihloko ezahlukeneyo.

Le ndlela ikwadlala indima ebalulekileyo ekumiseni ukholo. Ingqikelelo yokholo yinkolelo kunye nokuthembela, kwaye ibhekisa ekuvunyweni kwemicimbi yokomoya neyenkolo. Ngokusebenzisa indlela yentanda-bulumko enenjongo, ingqalelo ijoliswe ekufundeni nasekuhlalutyeni ukholo ngokwentanda-bulumko, nto leyo enegalelo ekomelezeni nokwakha iziseko zalo zomelele.

Le ndlela inegalelo ekucaciseni izifundo zokomoya nezokuziphatha kunye nokucinga okunzulu malunga nemiba yobukho nenyaniso. Ngokusebenzisa iindlela neendlela zentanda-bulumko enenjongo, ukuqonda kwandiswa, ulwazi oluphathelele ukholo lwenziwa nzulu, yaye kuqiniswa intembelo kwiinkolelo zonqulo.

Ngokubanzi, indlela yefilosofi eyinjongo inegalelo elikhulu ekuqondeni nasekuhlalutyweni kwemiba emininzi entsonkothileyo neyimpikiswano kubomi bomoya kunye nentlalontle. Ngokusebenzisa le ndlela, ukuqonda kwethu ukholo kuyakhula yaye namandla ethu okucinga nzulu nokucingisisa ngezinto ezisixhalabisayo ayakhula. Ke ngoko, indlela yefilosofi enenjongo sesinye sezixhobo zethu ezibalulekileyo kukhangelo lwethu lwentsingiselo yokwenyani kunye nokuqonda okunzulu kobomi.

Lithini igama lesona sithandi sobulumko sibalaseleyo ehlabathini?

Intanda-bulumko enkulu ehlabathini ngumntu onomdla kubantu abaninzi kwaye ushiye uphawu lwakhe kwinkalo yefilosofi. Ngelixa iintanda-bulumko ezininzi ezidumileyo zinokubanga esi sihloko ngempembelelo kunye nomsebenzi wazo, isithandi sobulumko saseJamani uFriedrich Nietzsche uthathwa njengenye yeengqondo ezinkulu eziye zatyebisa intanda-bulumko yehlabathi. UNietzsche wayedume ngeengcamango zakhe ezivuselela inkanuko nemvukelo, ezashiya impembelelo enkulu kwiingcinga zaseNtshona. Imisebenzi yakhe ithatha indawo ebalulekileyo kwinkalo yokuziphatha, ifilosofi yezopolitiko kunye nengqondo. UNietzsche wasebenzisa isimbo esikhethekileyo kwimibhalo yakhe, awathi kuyo wanikela iingcamango zakhe ngendlela yamazwi axhokonxayo neengcamango eziphikisanayo, nto leyo eyabangela ukuba abaninzi bamgqale njengesithandi sobulumko esiphikisanayo.

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