Inkcazo yokucinga nzulu kwaye zeziphi iintlobo zokucinga okunzulu?

mohamed elsharkawy
Iinkcukacha zajikelele
mohamed elsharkawyIsifundi sobungqina: nancyNgoSeptemba 17, 2023Uhlaziyo lokugqibela: kwiinyanga ezi-9 ezidlulileyo

Inkcazo yokucinga okunzulu

Ukucinga okubalulekileyo kuchazwa njengobuchule bokuqinisekisa uqikelelo okanye izimvo nokuba ziyinyani, zibambe inxalenye yenyaniso, okanye aziyonyani kwaphela. Ukucinga okubalulekileyo yinkqubo eqeqeshelwe ubukrelekrele yokucinga, ukusebenzisa, ukuhlalutya, ukudibanisa, kunye/okanye ukuvavanya ulwazi oluqokelelweyo okanye oluphuma kuqwalaselo. Olu hlobo lokucinga lunegalelo ekuphuhliseni izakhono zethu zokuqonda kwaye lusinceda siqonde izinto ngokunzulu nangokuchanekileyo.

UDiana Halpern uchaza ukucinga okunzulu njengendlela yokucinga okunenjongo apho izakhono zengqondo kunye neendlela zokuqiqa zisetyenziselwa ukuchonga izinto ezinokuthi zibe negalelo ekuqondeni nasekuhlalutyeni ulwazi ngendlela enengqiqo. Ngokwengcaciso kaMajeed, ukucinga okunzulu luvavanyo lolwazi umntu adibana nalo esebenzisa ingqiqo, ucazululo, ukucinga okubonakalayo okubonelelwa ngumntu. Ngamafutshane, ukucinga okucacileyo ngumsebenzi wemihla ngemihla owenziwe ngumntu xa evezwe kwi-stimulus, kwaye yamkelwa ngenye yeemvakalelo zakhe ezintlanu.

Ukucinga okubalulekileyo yinkqubo yengqondo engqongqo apho iikhonsepthi ziphuhliswa kwaye ulwazi olufunyenweyo luhlalutywe kwaye luvavanywe, kungakhathaliseki ukuba luvela phi. Le nkqubo ibandakanya ukuphonononga kunye nokuhlalutya ulwazi kunye neengcinga ngokufanelekileyo nangokucwangcisiweyo. Kubandakanya ukujonga nzulu kwimiba kunye nokuyiphonononga ngokucokisekileyo ukufikelela kwizigqibo ezinenjongo kunye nezigqibo ezisekelwe kwiziseko ezivakalayo. Ngoko ke, ukucinga okunzulu kuthathwa njengesixhobo esibalulekileyo ekuphuhliseni ukukwazi ukucinga ngokufanelekileyo kunye nokwenza izigqibo ezifanelekileyo.

Inkcazo yokucinga okunzulu - isihloko

Yintoni ingcamango yokucinga?

Ingqikelelo yokucinga yinkqubo yengqondo entsonkothileyo eyisethi yeenkqubo zokuqonda kunye nengqondo ezenzeka ngaphakathi kwengqondo. Injongo ephambili yokucinga kukusombulula iingxaki kunye nokwenza izigqibo ngendlela yesayensi ngokucinga okucwangcisiweyo nokucwangcisiweyo. Umntu usekela inkqubo yakhe yokucinga kweyona nkcazelo ilungileyo ikhoyo yaye ukhokelwa ziindlela namacebo afanelekileyo. Injongo inokufezekiswa ngoqeqesho kunye nokuziqhelanisa ukuphuhlisa izakhono zokucinga zesayensi ngendlela eyongezelekayo nelungelelanisiweyo. Ukucinga luphawu olulodwa olwahlula abantu kwezinye izidalwa, njengoko lubavumela ukuba basebenzisane kwaye balawule ubunyani obangqongileyo. Ke ngoko, ukucinga yinxalenye ebalulekileyo yobukrelekrele kunye nokuyila. Kukho iinkcazo ezininzi zokucinga, kodwa kunokuvunyelwana ukuba lucazululo olunengqiqo, oluthandabuzayo, nolungenamkhethe lwedatha, ubungqina kunye neenyani.

Kuthetha ukuthini ukucinga nzulu?

Kuyaziwa ukuba ukucinga okunzulu kukukwazi ukuqinisekisa kunye nokuqinisekisa ubunyani beengcamango kunye neengcinga esidibana nazo kubomi bethu bemihla ngemihla. Ukusetyenziswa ngokufanelekileyo kokucinga okunzulu kujolise ekuphuhliseni izakhono zokuqonda kunye nobuchule bokuqiqa, ukwenzela ukuhlalutya iingcamango kunye nokwahlula phakathi kwezinto eziyinyani kunye nezingeyiyo.

Ukucinga okubalulekileyo kubandakanya ukukwazi ukubandakanyeka ngokucacileyo nangengqiqo ekuqiqeni ngezimvo zethu kunye nokucinga ngokucingisisayo nangokunzulu. Oku kumalunga nokuvavanya ulwazi esilufumanayo kunye nokwenza izigqibo ezifanelekileyo kuyo. Ukucinga okubalulekileyo kuyindlela enenjongo yokucinga apho ukucinga kunye nokuhlalutya okunengqiqo kusetyenziselwa ukwenza izigqibo ezifanelekileyo kunye nokuqinisekisa iingcamango.

Ukucinga okubalulekileyo kukwabonelela ngohlobo lovavanyo olucwangcisiweyo kunye nophononongo lolwazi esilufumanayo, nokuba kukufunda, ukumamela, okanye ukusebenzisana nabanye. Ngale ndlela, ukucinga okuphangaleleyo kusivumela ukuba siqinisekise ubunyaniso kunye namandla olwazi kunye neengcinga esijongene nazo.

Ngokuqhelekileyo, ukucinga okubalulekileyo kunokuthathwa njengenkqubo ebalulekileyo ebomini bethu bemihla ngemihla, njengoko sinokuyisebenzisa ukuqinisekisa ubungqina bolwazi kunye nokwenza izigqibo ezifanelekileyo. Ukuphuhlisa ukukwazi ukucinga ngokucokisekileyo kufuna uqeqesho oluqhubekayo kunye nokuziqhelanisa, kuba negalelo ekuphuculeni izakhono zethu zengqondo, ukwandisa i-horizons yokucinga, kunye nokuqonda ngcono ihlabathi elisingqongileyo.

Ngawaphi amanyathelo okucinga nzulu?

Inyathelo lokuqala: ulwazi
Inkqubo yokucinga nzulu iqala ngokuqulunqa uthotho lwezifundo kunye neentlobo ezahlukeneyo zokucinga nzulu. Oku kufuna ukukwazi ukusebenzisa amanyathelo okusombulula ukuphikisana, kuquka ukuvuselela ukuphaphama, ukuthatha umngcipheko, kunye nokufumana izakhono zokufuna ulwazi.

Inyathelo lesiBini: Qonda kwaye uvavanye idatha
Eli nyathelo kukuchaza ingxaki yophando kunye nokuqokelela lonke ulwazi olukhoyo malunga nalo. Umfundi okanye umphandi kufuneka akwazi ukuhlalutya imeko kwaye avavanye idatha ekhoyo ukuchonga iingxaki eziphambili kunye nemiba efuna ukuqwalaselwa ngakumbi. Oku kuchonga iinxalenye eziphambili ezinegalelo ekuqondeni ngcono umxholo.

Inyathelo lesithathu: uhlalutyo
Inyathelo lokuhlalutya lithathwa njengelinye lamanyathelo abalulekileyo ekucingeni okubalulekileyo. Umfundi okanye umphandi kufuneka ahlalutye imeko ngokweenkcukacha nangokubanzi, esebenzisa ulwazi olufunyenweyo kunye neengqiqo ezinengqiqo. Uhlalutyo olunzulu lunceda ukutyhila ubudlelwane obahlukeneyo kunye nokuchasana kwaye kufike ekutolikeni okubanzi kunye nokubanzi kwesihloko esifundiweyo.

Inyathelo leSine: Isiphelo kunye noVavanyo
Kweli nyathelo, umfundi okanye umphandi wenza izigqibo zokugqibela ngokusekelwe kuhlalutyo lwangaphambili. Umntu kufuneka avavanye izigqibo ezenziwe ngokucwangcisiweyo nangobunzululwazi ukuqinisekisa ukunyaniseka nokuthembeka kwazo. Oku kufuna ingqalelo kwiinkcukacha kunye nokuphononongwa ngononophelo ngaphambi kokuba kwenziwe isigqibo sokugqibela.

Inkcazo yokucinga okunzulu, amanyathelo kunye neempawu zayo ... - Imfundo eNtsha

Yeyiphi eyona njongo yokucinga nzulu?

Enye yeenjongo eziphambili zokucinga okubalulekileyo kukuxhobisa abantu ngokukwazi ukuhlalutya nokuvavanya ulwazi ngokucwangcisiweyo nangengqiqo, ngenjongo yokwenza izigqibo ezizizo. Ukucinga okunzulu kunceda abantu ukuba bacinge ngokuzimeleyo kunye nokuzimela, kwaye balindele izisombululo zabo kwiingxaki eziphambi kwabo. Ngokunxibelelana neenyani kunye nolwazi olukhoyo, umntu uyakwazi ukukhupha iingcamango ezisisiseko, ahlalutye umxholo, aze afumane iziphumo ezinenjongo kunye nezigqibo ngokucinga okunzulu. Ukufunda nokuphuhlisa izakhono zokucinga ezinzulu kunegalelo ekukhuleni komntu ngokwasengqondweni nakwimfundo, kwaye kuyinxalenye ebalulekileyo yenkqubo yokufunda nokuphuhliswa kwengqondo.

Zeziphi iimpawu zokucinga nzulu?

Ukucinga okubalulekileyo kuneseti yeempawu eziyahlula kwaye zenze ukuba ziphumelele ekuphuhliseni ulwazi kunye nokuhlalutya iingcamango. Okokuqala, umgxeki uzimisele ukuqokelela ulwazi olwahlukeneyo noluqhubekayo ukuze akhe ulwazi lwakhe nokuqonda imiba yengxaki ekhoyo. Ndiyabulela ukuchaneka kwakhe kokujonga kunye nokuvuleleka kwiingcamango ezintsha, umgxeki uyakwazi ukufumana iingcamango ezintsha kunye nokuqonda okufaka isandla ekuphuhliseni ukucinga.

Okwesibini, ukucinga nzulu kuphangalele kwaye kukulungele ukwamkela iingcamango ezintsha. Umgxeki ukholelwa ukuba uhlaziyo kunye nophuculo lwamaxesha lunegalelo ekuziphuhliseni nasekuphuhliseni ulwazi. Ngoko ke, ukhetha ukunxibelelana neenkcubeko kunye neengcamango ezahlukeneyo, kwaye uzama ukudibanisa kwintetho yakhe kunye nohlalutyo lweengcamango.

Okwesithathu, ukucinga nzulu kukhusela iingqondo zolutsha kwaye kuyabakhuthaza ukuba baphuhlise isakhono sabo sobukrelekrele. Ibakhuthaza ukuba babuze kwaye bakhangele izibakala kunye nobungqina, kwaye ayipheleli ekwamkeleni ulwazi ngaphandle kokuhlalutya okanye ukugxekwa. Ngombulelo kolu phawu, ukucinga okubalulekileyo kunegalelo ekuphuhliseni ukutsalwa, ukuhlalutya, kunye nezakhono zokuvavanya phakathi kwabantu abatsha, kwaye kubanika ithuba lokuphuhlisa izakhono zengqondo kunye nokwenza izigqibo ezifanelekileyo ebomini babo.

Izinto eziluncedo zokucinga nzulu

Iingenelo zokucinga nzulu kukuba kukhulisa ukuzithemba komntu nokukulungela kwakhe ukuzivuma iimpazamo zakhe aze asebenzele ukuzilungisa. Ukucinga okunzulu kunceda umntu azibeke kwindawo yabanye kwaye abaqonde ngokunzulu. Ukucinga okubalulekileyo kukhulisa ukukwazi ukunxibelelana nabanye kwaye kwandisa amandla abo okunxibelelana kunye nokuqonda. Ukongeza, ukucinga okunzulu kwandisa amandla okufumana nokusombulula iingxaki ngokufanelekileyo. Ngokusekelwe kwizifundo ezikhethekileyo kwinkalo yemfundo, ukucinga okunzulu kuthathwa njengenye yezakhono ezisisiseko ekufuneka ziphuhliswe kubafundi ukwandisa izakhono zabo zokusombulula iingxaki kunye nokwenza izigqibo ngokufanelekileyo nangokuguquguqukayo. Ke, ukucinga okunzulu kunegalelo ekwandiseni ubuchule bokuyila kunye nokusetyenziswa ngcono kwezimvo ezintsha.

Zeziphi iintlobo zokucinga okunzulu?

Iindidi zokucinga ezinzulu ziyimiba ebalulekileyo yenkqubo yengqondo enceda ukuhlalutya ngokucokisekileyo iingcamango kunye neemeko. Ukucinga okubalulekileyo kubonakala ngokukwazi ukuhlalutya ulwazi kunye neengcamango ngokufanelekileyo nangobulungisa. Olu hlobo lokucinga lufuna ukukwazi ukuhlalutya kunye nokwahlula phakathi kweenyani ezingangqinwanga kunye namabango kunye nokuqhelana nobungqina obahlukeneyo obukhoyo kunye nemithombo.

Ezinye iindlela ezithile zokucinga nzulu zinokwahlulwa, njengokucinga okunyulu, ukucinga nge-eclectic, ukucinga nge-ontogenic, kunye nokucinga okutsha okubalulekileyo. Ukucinga okunzulu kukhulisa ukukwazi ukuhlalutya ubungqina kunye nokucwangcisa ulwazi ngendlela enengqiqo nefanelekileyo, ekunceda ukuba wenze izigqibo ezinolwazi kwaye uqonde izinto ngcono.

Ukucinga okunzulu kukwanceda ekuphuhliseni ukukwazi ukucinga nzulu ngakumbi, ukuhlalutya imiba kwii-engile ezahlukeneyo, nokufunda iinyani ezingakumbi kunye neenkcukacha ezinxulumene nazo. Ukucinga okubalulekileyo kukwabonisa isakhelo esibalulekileyo sengqondo ekusombululeni iingxaki kunye nokwenza izigqibo ezihambelana neenyaniso ezikhoyo kunye nobungqina.

Ukuzoba kwizakhono ezifunyenwe kolu hlobo lokucinga, umntu unokuba ngumcibi-ngqondo osebenzayo, onokukhokelela ekuphuhlisweni kolwazi, ukuqonda, kunye nokukwazi ukusombulula iingxaki kwiindawo ezahlukeneyo zobomi.

Ziziphi izakhono zokucinga ezibalulekileyo - el gouzi

Uthini umahluko phakathi kwengcinga ephangaleleyo nokucinga ngendlela egwenxa?

Ukucinga okunzulu kunye nokucinga okugwenxa ngamagama amabini asetyenziswa ukuchaza iindlela ezimbini ezahlukeneyo zokucinga. Ukucinga okubalulekileyo sisixhobo esibalulekileyo kwinkqubo yokuqiqa okunengqiqo, uhlalutyo kunye novavanyo lolwazi. Ukucinga okunzulu kunceda umntu akhulise amandla akhe engqondo kwaye asebenzisane neengcinga kunye neenkolelo ngendlela eyakhayo nesengqiqweni.

Kwelinye icala, ukucinga ngendlela etenxileyo kubhekisela kwiingcamango ezingathembekanga nezingaqhelekanga abantu abanazo ngokweenkolelo zabo. Iingcinga ezigqwethekileyo zisenokuquka ukugqwetha izibakala nenkcazelo, yaye ungathembeli kubungqina obunamandla nobungqina ekwenzeni izigqibo. Iingcinga ezilahlekileyo zinokuba nempembelelo embi kumntu nakwindawo yakhe.

Umahluko phakathi kwengcinga ephangaleleyo nokucinga ngendlela egwenxa ukwindlela umntu aqhubana ngayo nolwazi kunye neengcinga. Ngelixa ukucinga okuphangaleleyo kufuna ukuphonononga ulwazi ngokufanelekileyo nangokufanelekileyo, ukucinga ngendlela egwenxa kuxhomekeke kwiinkolelo zomntu kunye nezimo zengqondo ezingathembekanga.

Ukucinga okubalulekileyo kunokuba nefuthe elihle elibalulekileyo kubomi babantu kunye noluntu, njengoko kunceda ukwenza izigqibo ezifanelekileyo, ukuthelekelela iinyani kunye nohlalutyo oluchanekileyo, oluphucula ukuzicingela kwaye lukhuthaze ukuyila kunye nokuqamba izinto ezintsha.
Kwelinye icala, ukucinga ngendlela etenxileyo kubuthathaka yaye akunamveliso, nto leyo ekhokelela kwizigqibo ezingafanelekanga nemiphumo emibi. Ngenxa yefuthe elibi lokucinga ngendlela egwenxa, kuyimfuneko ukuphuhlisa ulwazi kunye nokuphuhlisa izakhono zokucinga ezinzulu ukuyithintela kunye nokuphepha ukuwela kwimigibe yayo.

Izakhono zokucinga ezibalulekileyo kunye nendlela yokujongana nazo?

Izakhono zokucinga ezibalulekileyo zizakhono ezibalulekileyo ekufuneka ube nazo ebomini bakho nasemsebenzini. Ikwenza ukwazi ukusebenzisa ukucinga nzulu ukusombulula iingxaki kunye nokujongana nemingeni ojongene nayo. Umzekelo, unokusebenzisa izakhono zokucinga ezibukhali xa ujongene nengxaki efana nethi "Kutheni umhlobo wam enomsindo?" Okanye “Ndinokuyisingatha njani le meko?” Ikunceda uqonde ubunjani bengxaki kunye nezinto ezikhokelele ekwenzekeni kwayo.

Izakhono zokucinga ezibalulekileyo kukukwazi ukuqonda nokwenza izigwebo ngokuqiqa okucwangcisiweyo, okucacileyo, kunye nokusekelwe kubungqina. Ukucinga ngokunzulu kuphawulwa ngeempawu ezithile ezisisiseko, njengokukwazi ukuthembela kwizibakala nokuhlalutya okuchanileyo kunokuthembela kwiingcamango eziphosakeleyo. Izakhono zokucinga ezibalulekileyo ziquka ukukwazi ukuhlalutya, ukuvavanya, ukuthelekelela kunye nokugqiba.

Okokuqala, ukuphuhlisa izakhono zokucinga ezibalulekileyo, kufuneka uzigxeke. Ukuzicingisisa linyathelo lokuqala nelibalulekileyo. Kufuneka ukwazi ukuzihlolisisa kwaye ugxeke iingcinga kunye nezenzo zakho ngokwakho. Oku kukwenza ukwazi ukucinga ngokunzulu ngokusekelwe kwizibakala uze uhlalutye oluchanekileyo kwaye uphephe ukuwela kwiingcamango eziphosakeleyo.

Ukuphuhlisa izakhono zokucinga ezibalulekileyo kufuna uqeqesho kunye nokuzilolonga. Unokuphucula izakhono zakho ngokuziqhelanisa nokubona, uhlalutyo, ukudibanisa kunye nokuvavanya. Ukufunda imathiriyeli yolwazi efanelekileyo, ukusombulula iingxaki zokwenyani, kwaye uxoxe ngazo nabanye kunokukunceda uphuhlise ukucinga kwakho okunzulu.

Iimpawu zengcaphephe egxekayo?

Umntu ochwepheshile ocingayo uneempawu ezininzi ezimenza akwazi ukuvavanya nokuhlalutya izihloko kunye nezimvo ngendlela ebalaseleyo. Olunye lwezi mpawu kukufuna ukwazi; Ingcali yokucinga egxekayo ikulungele ukufumanisa imiba emitsha kunye nemibuzo abayiphakamisayo. Ikwabonakaliswe ngokuqala kunye nokukwazi ukufumanisa iingcamango kunye nohlalutyo olunengqiqo lwedatha ekhoyo kunye nolwazi.

Ukongeza, umntu ongcakacileyo ocingayo unenjongo ekujongeni nasekucingeni. Usebenzisa izakhono zokuhlalutya nzulu, ahlule phakathi kweenyaniso kunye neentelekelelo, kwaye uthembele kubungqina kunye nezibakala ukuze ahlole imicimbi ngeenjongo ezipheleleyo. Kananjalo unonxibelelwano olusebenzayo kunye nezakhono zokuthatha izigqibo ezinolwazi.

Ingcali yokucinga enzulu inamandla okusebenzisa ingqiqo kwaye isebenzise ukukhokela ukhetho lwakhe kunye nokwenza izigqibo ezifanelekileyo ngokusekelwe kwidatha ekhoyo. Ukwanentembelo kubuchule bakhe nakubuchule bakhe bokuqhubela phambili ekuhlalutyeni nasekuphononongeni imicimbi ngokuqhubekayo.

Ukubaluleka kokucinga okunzulu kuluntu?

Ukucinga okubalulekileyo kuthathwa njengenye yezinto ezibalulekileyo zokuphumeza uphuhliso kunye nokuchuma koluntu. Ifak’ isandla ekwakhiweni koluntu olumanyeneyo noluhambele phambili ngokucel’ umngeni iingcamango eziphosakeleyo, iimbono ezibaxiweyo, nenzondelelo yempambano ngokwengqondo. Ngokucinga nzulu, abantu ngabanye bafunda ukusebenzisa iingqondo zabo kuneemvakalelo zabo kwaye bachonge iimvakalelo zabo ngendlela esengqiqweni. Ngaloo ndlela, banako ukuphuhlisa amanqanaba angcono okucinga kwaye benze izigqibo ezinolwazi ezikhokelela kutshintsho oluhle ebomini babo kunye nobomi boluntu lonke.

Ngombulelo wokucinga okunzulu, umntu uyakwazi ukujongana neengxaki kunye nemingeni ajongene nayo ebomini bakhe nakuluntu ngokubanzi. Uyakwazi ukuhlalutya iimeko ngokufanelekileyo kwaye asebenzise ingqiqo nolwazi ukufumana izisombululo ezingcono nezisebenzayo. Ukucinga nzulu kunokunceda abafundi benze izigqibo ezilungeleleneyo nezilumkileyo kwaye banandiphe ugwebo olungenamkhethe kwiimeko ezahlukeneyo.

Ukongezelela, ukucinga okunzulu kukhuthaza unxibelelwano olusebenzayo nolwakhayo kuluntu. Ngokuphonononga kunye nokuphonononga izimvo zabanye, abantu ngabanye banokuthatha iimbono ezininzi kwaye bafunde kumava abanye. Ngale ndlela, intsebenziswano kunye nokuqondana phakathi kwamalungu oluntu kuyaphuculwa kwaye uphuhliso lwentlalo kunye nenkcubeko luyafezekiswa.

Ngaba kunokwenzeka ukuba ukucinga nzulu kunemiqobo okanye ukwenzakala?

Kucacile ukuba ukucinga okunzulu kuneenzuzo ezibalulekileyo ekuphuhliseni izakhono zengqondo, ukuphucula ukuqonda, kunye nokwenza izigqibo ezinolwazi. Nangona kunjalo, ukucinga nzulu kunokuba nemiqobo kunye nomonakalo ekufuneka siwuthathele ingqalelo. Ngokomzekelo, ukucinga nzulu kunokubangela ukuba umntu akhawuleze enze izigqibo aze agxekwe, nto leyo ekhokelela ekubeni angaziqondi izibakala aze acinge izinto ezingachananga. Ukucinga okunzulu kunokubangela ukuba umntu agxininise kakhulu kwizinto ezingakhiyo kunye neentsilelo, aze angayihoyi imiba emihle kunye namathuba. Ukucinga nzulu ngokugqithisileyo kunokukhokelela ekuthandabuzekeni okugqithisileyo kunye nokuthandabuza ekwenzeni izigqibo, ezinokuthi zithintele inkqubela kunye nophuhliso. Ke ngoko, kufuneka sisondele kwingcinga ephangaleleyo ngononophelo nangolwazi, kwaye siyisebenzise njengesixhobo sokwenza nzulu ulwazi nokuqonda endaweni yokuba ibe ngumqobo omkhulu kuthi kubomi bethu bemihla ngemihla.

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